The out of 118 countries. According to FAO

The population of India is around
1.3 billion, even though it has a tremendous growth in technology, education,
per capita consumption, etc. Despite this India is unable to feed food for a
large number of people in rural areas. According to global hunger index in
2016, India ranks at 97 out of 118 countries. According to FAO estimates
in ‘The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World, 2017″ report, 190.7
million people are undernourished in India. By this measure, 14.5% of the
population is undernourished in India. Also, 51.4% of women in reproductive age
between 15 to 49 years are anemic1.

The main aim of rural livelihood
security is to enhance the rural areas through strengthening the base of
natural resources such as land, soil, and water. In most of the rural areas in
India, half of the population is involved in farming and agriculture as a way
of earning a living. They survive based on the common livelihoods like
Small-scale farming, fishing, raising livestock and non-farm activities, etc.
Rural people face a tremendous challenge, where their means of living do get
affected due to change in climate and it leads them to poverty. Some of the
rural households, which earns their income through diverse sources have better
chances of survival financially than a household which has only one source.

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Livelihood security is to ensure
the adequate and sustainable access to income and resources in order to meet
basic needs like potable water, food, health facilities, educational
opportunities, good infrastructure, easy accessibility, participating in
community-related activities for a common man.  This topic deals with
developing a framework for sustainable livelihood to strengthen food security
for the rural people by providing nutritious food. Livelihood generally was
known as means of living, it eradicates poverty, also brings people back from
disasters like shocks or stress due to climate change, greenhouse gases,
etc. 

A rural household with diverse
sources of income earning activities has better chances of survival financially
than a household which has only one source. Delivery of quality education and
training in a variety of skills in rural areas is therefore needed to attain
rural livelihoods.

Humana People to People India
(HPPI) Community Development Program targets to address the problem of food
security while promoting sustainable farm-based livelihoods by
promoting agriculture and animal husbandry in an integrated farm-based
livelihood model 2. Realizing this India decided to adopt the
INDC’s (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions) outlined by the U.N.
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These are a series of pledges
which countries across the globe make in relation to specific contributions
they will attempt to reduce the impact and extent of climate change. India had
submitted its INDC on 1/10/2015 which was coincidentally enough the day of the
deadline for submission of the INDC’s.

Challenges faced in most of the rural areas are:

Low
agricultural yield due to lack of irrigation, inadequate agriculture input
supply, and no awareness regarding plan protection.
Low
livelihood yield cause of genetically inferior stock from a productivity
perspective, water scarcity and also lack of awareness about livestock
management.
Lack
of forest-based enterprises because of eradication of forest potential
instead of utilization.
Poor
awareness of development and optimum utilization of livelihood resources
due to less accessibility and knowledge about technology.

INDCA goals:

The INDC submitted by India had the following
intended targets 3.

Goal 1: To adopt a climate-friendly and a cleaner
path than the one followed hitherto by others at corresponding level of
economic development

Goal 2: To adapt to climate change by enhancing
investments in development programmes in sectors vulnerable to climate change,
particularly agriculture, water resources, health, and disaster management.

 Goal 3: To build capacities, create a
domestic framework and international architecture for quick diffusion of cutting-edge
climate technology in India and for joint collaborative R&D for such future
technologies.

Goal 4: To Create additional carbon sink of 2.5 -3
billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover
(increase of about 680 – 817 million tonne of carbon stock) 

Goal 5: To put forward and further propagate a
healthy and sustainable way of living based on traditions and values of
conservation and moderation. 

 

Actions:

 In order to meet its goals, India had
outlined a slew of policies in its framework which includes a set of strategies
called adaptation strategies. It is a short-term goal. One of the most critical
components is to ensure security for the rural livelihood and the following
measures were outlined in the INDC proposal submitted by India.

1.    At comparable levels of income,
India’s Growth Path much cleaner and greener and it will continue to be so.
India’s current per capita GDP in PPP terms (Purchasing Power Parity) achieved
at a substantially lower level of emissions compared to developed countries.

2.    High vulnerability of India to
climate change impacts due to poverty and dependence of a large population on
climate-sensitive sectors for livelihood. Strategies and initiatives include
actions in agriculture, water, health, disaster management, protecting
biodiversity and securing a rural livelihood. New missions in Health and
Coastal Areas were undertaken. National Water Mission and National Mission on
Sustainable Agriculture has set up an INR 350 Crores (USD 55.6 million) by National
Adaptation Fund

3.    Critical technologies need to be
facilitated via Global collaboration fund in R&D using preliminary and
illustrative list of select technologies given in India’s INDC

4.    Full implementation of Green
India Mission in order to enhance its carbon sink also launches Green Highways
Policy to emphasis 140,000 km long “tree-line” along both sides of national
highways. 1% of project cost to be earmarked for plantation along Rivers. 

5.    Extravagant lifestyles will
require 5 planets whereas sustainable lifestyle will require 1 planet. India
Promote “Sustainable Lifestyles” based on needs-based consumption.

PROGRESS MADE SO FAR IN INDIA:

           
We can consider the development from the Britishers where they started
the differentiation as shift from agricultural to industries led some people to
fall below poverty. Even though this is good opportunity for the developing our
economy ,we lost the development for rural areas like handicraft and handlooms
lost their priority in the market which took away many peoples employment and
income .

   In India
considerably progress has be done in all the aspects for the development of
rural livelihood security since 1990 to present date. With the help of SDG’S
and MDG’S goals, government had took many initiative, but if we see the data
from 50 years the situation of rural are still in back seat. Many people are
migrating from rural to urban as the schemes implemented by the government are
not reaching to the rural people.

         
National Rural Livelihood Mission had spent many nearly RS1983.34 crore
it is up to 2014 data base. India has implemented nearly 500 schemes for rural
people in different sectors like health, education, employment, and women
empowerment etc., Every year in India when they are implementing the budget in
the parliament they provide funds for the rural development schemes also. Vice
versa in many other countries like Nigeria, Ethiopia they are look the growth
of agricultural developments in rural, this was done with the survey made from Millennium Development Goals.

        And according to the GDP agricultural
and allied services has been reduce since the 1950 to the present situation,
from 49.6% 1950 to 16.95% 2014 it has been reduced .this was said by the world
data .50% of the labour is still dependent on the agricultural in India .

 

 

       When
it comes to the employment and livelihood in the rural areas of the India,
almost every household gets less than 5000 RS monthly which shows that BPL
population still existing in the India which is making India to be in
developing stage .SECC Socio-Economic Census 2011, tell that more than half of
the rural people in India doesn’t have their own house, but it is better than
1950 census.

 

 

 

Government of India had taken many initiatives for
poverty eradication, so the poverty in India has been reducing in over time
from the 1950 -2012 census data tell about the statistics of the Indian poverty
.Today 36% is poor in rural areas and 13.7% in urban areas ,even though many
technologies are there urban population also has poverty levels but the eradication
measurements are taken quickly in those areas.

 

   When it
comes to region wise rural health sector, sanitary and latrine facilities are
very low in few eastern state regions like Nagaland, Meghalaya Manipur etc.
Recently in 2017 November government took strict rules to create awareness of
latrines to the rural people and they started building these in every village
which are taken as a project by SHGs .

 

 

MGD’S helps in education system in the rural where
appreciably increased from 61.9% (1991) to 82.1% (2007) then we can estimate by
today how much it would have helped the rural people fore there education .The
introduced separate schemes for female and male, because as we see the past
there are very less educated women .To increases the literacy rate of women
they had come up with different schemes. They had promoted on gender equality
and empower of women, where education programme for girls from Elementary
education has been implemented, Education of Girls at the Elementary Level
(NPEGEL) and Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV). Where
there’s is increase from 12.7 in 1990 to 18.1 in 2005.

          SHG
(self help groups) which is the unique part from all there’s in the worlds
where they help each and every village to be sustainable development in all the
aspects as same as urban people. Technology helped the agricultural to change
the harvesting system so they can finish the work fast. But problem with this
SHG is they are not getting sufficient funds from the government. They should
give employment to the educated people in SGH so that they can educate the
rural people about the schemes provided to them. SGH’S budget allocation of
Rs.90.00 (RE), the project has made a total expenditure of Rs.72.13 crore these
was achieved in 2015.

         
According to the World Bank if we see their main objectives to the rural
development and their livelihood is:

·       Focusing on poor

·       Fostering broad based growth

·       Addressing their entire rural
space

·       Foregoing alliance of all stake
holders

These are the strategy followed by all the
countries even India is also following to achieve the developed villages in
each and every place. India has reduced its poverty line comparative with
previous years. For the new technology implementation WTO will help every
country with infrastructure, these is mainly for the developing countries.

Initiative
taken by the government of India

India is the developing country and fastest growing Indian economy. India
as taken many initiatives such as Make in India, Digital transaction, swatch
bharat etc. It creates awareness to the rural people. Since around 300 million
and more people are still not aware of the new initiative for the rural live
hoods such as

National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

          This scheme implemented by the state of Madhya Pradesh and
it was launched in 18 districts of M.P from 02.02.2016. It is shared by 90% of
the people. The main aim of this scheme to implement is to provide a minimum
100 days’ work for unskilled employment to adult members of rural families.

M.P rural livehood program

An amount of Rs. 23.15
crores was available in the scheme for the year 2006-07 as per previous balance
and other receipts in which state share is Rs. 0.49 crores out of which upto
November 2006 Rs. 22.42 crores spent which is 96.05% of total available fund.
For the year 2006-07 the target for livelihood programme is 25,000 families
against which upto November 2006, the achievement is 16,700 families and the
percentage is 66.80. For the year 2007-08, Rs.31.40 crores ceiling is proposed
in which Rs. 0.80 crores is state share. Hence, accordingly for the XIth five
year plan ceiling is proposed for Rs. 224.80 crores. For the year 2007-08, the
target is 80,000 families, hence, accordingly for the XIth five
year plan the number of beneficiaries is 3.20 lakh families.

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna 

This
project is being implemented in the state with effect from 25.12.2000. The
purpose of this scheme is to monitor and implement rural road development
authority was formed. The main aim of this project is to provide a roads for
the villages. The planned distance of 26,544km long road construction works
were sanctioned in September 2006 out of which the completed 11,153 km roads
construction. These projects help the village people transportation problems.

Science
and technology

Science and technology plays a pivotal
role in promotion of S&T in the country. It is emerging trends in the
country. The technologies should serve requirements of the common man through
development of appropriate skills and technologies on the other.Government
schemes focusing on Science and Technology are:

S&T Application for Rural Development (STARD):The objective is facilitating development and innovative
technologies.

S&T for Women: To promote R
& D and adaptation of technology helps to improve the life of employment of
women especially in rural areas.

S&TApplication for Weaker Sections
(STAWS):development of economically
weaker sections of the society

Tribal sub-plan: Improving
living conditions of scheduled tribes based on sustainable science and technology
activities

 Special Component Plan
(SCP):  Improving the lot
of the poor sections of SC community through intervention of Science &
Technology.

 Actions taken by Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham (Amrita SeRVe)

 

Mata Amritanadamayi
Math (MAM) has taken initiative for some selected village around 101 places
throughout India with the aim of helping them to become independent for
security and adapting strategies for rural livehood.

Why
Amma taken initiatives because she said that village are India’s foundation its
life force and that it is society’s responsibility to take care of them.  It is our village that in fact, we sustain
and provide security by us we, who live in the cities, with the vegetables and
others forms of nourishment we need to in order to survive. Amma said today we
are just exploiting them and casting them aside. It is our due to acknowledge
that our village peoples are our foundation and to move forward with one heart
and one mind to protect and serve them for the security adaptation.

The Mata Amritanandamayi Math—which has had Special
Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic-Social Council since
2005—has vast experience in each of these seven areas. Listed below are only
some of the activities being undertaken in each area.

Health:

Conducting many medical camps for the
villages where heath care is difficult to access.

Provided
training to the students at the Amrita Institute of Medical Science (AIMS)
through that over 2.6 million people have received free medical care since from
1998.

Providing
vegetable seeds and educating villagers in home vegetable cultivation. This
shows the most effective mechanism to combat malnutrition. Provide clean
drinking water.

 

Agriculture:

Provide
training farmers in natural farming and organic agriculture practices and
educating them about the harmful effects of using chemical pesticides and
fertilizer for their security adaptation.
Starting a seed bank to provide free seeds to farmers. Creating a knowledge
repository to enable farmers to know which companion crops to plant.
Providing irrigation facilities so that farmers can grow a second crop after
the rainy season is over to help increase farmer incomes and check migration.

 Eco
Friendly Infrastructure

The amrita conducted kuteeram program
around more than 45,000 houses throughout India and it is executed well.

The emphases is on using ecofriendly
building technologies such as using compressed mud blocks and are also being
strengthened.

They planted more than one million
saplings since from 2001 and massive afforestation drives are being undertaken
in the villages.

The amrita is providing options through
the solar panels developed are Amrita University.

Income geneation:

The helped more than
100,000 women to form 6000 self help group; noe this group are being formed in
our villages also.

They provide training
for fabric painting, artificial jewelery making etc. is being provided by
amrita university labs.

Levarging local resources
to make value added products and reviving traditional arts and crafts are the
focus of our income generation programs and providing pension to the needy. The
amrita Nidhi pension to 69,000 widows physically and mentally challenged
peoples.

 

Water and sanitation:

The educating
about the rainwater harvesting to make contours and trenches on farms. The
minimize the use of water for irrigation and latter help recharge ground water.

The implemented
watershed projects. India is the largest user of ground water in the world.

Building toilets that use less water.Leveraging the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyaan of the
Government of India to empower every family to build a toilet.

Education

The currently provides 46,000 scholarships throughout
India. Now poor children in all villages are receiving these scholarships.

The provide program using multimedia tablet based
learning program called amrita RITE (Rural Indian Tablet- Enhanced Education).

Leveraging the sarva shiksha abhiyaan to help upgrade all
village school to standard 12th by the Govt. of India.

Internships for rural students in June, 2014, 13 teams of
students served in our village.

Self-Employment:

 Forming self-reliant groups of
especially women and youth in order to tackle problems in all seven focus areas
with MAM’s help.
Combating practices such as consuming alcohol,
chewing tobacco and eating gutka, by showing videos about the ill-effects of
the same.
Helping bring traditional knowledge about the
uses of medicinal plants, rainwater harvesting and natural farming to the
forefront and reviving such practices.
Yoga and meditation camps for the village youth
and children. MAM regularly teaches yoga and meditation at its centers, schools
and university campuses throughout India.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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