The is of paramount to achieve worthy results

           The inner framework of the human body is the
skeletal system which comprised many bones of the different role of the
physical structure. The bone is
subject to deterioration due to human bodily processes, injury and disease.
Another major disease that is faced by the aged and sometimes the young people
is arthritis, it courses impairment to the life of those affected and it could
lead to unbearable pain and immobility. Apart from people that are affected by
disease, agile and young people like sports men and women often need
replacements due to fracture and excessive strain.  Researchers in biomedical Engineering face a
considerable undertaking in their effort to see a solution to the replenishment
of damaged tissues caused by these life-threatening diseases. The
complex problems faced in bioimplants has been their contact with the
biological environment of various physico-chemical nature and interaction with
tissue and bone(Manivasagam et
al., 2010). Acceptability by the human body
without immunological rejection in the body and a good response with tissue
cells is an important requirement for choice of biomaterial. The materials
should have mechanical properties like tensile strength, hadness and low
modulus of elasticity corrosion resistance and elongation wear resistance (Manjaiah and Laubscher, 2017).  In
this respect, the need for collaboration between specialists like
mechanical engineers, material scientists, metallurgists, orthopaedists, and so
forth, with track records of experience is of paramount to achieve worthy
results in research, development and execution of the extracted knowledge into
practice. However, developments in the field of biomedical Engineering have led
to continuous renewed interest in biomaterial requirement to resolve the
problems of failed hard tissues such as hip joints, knee joints, dental implants,
etc., by using metallic biomaterials like, Cobalt based alloys, stainless
steel, titanium alloys, TiNi shape memory alloys which are known to be main
metallic materials as suitable replacement for hard tissues(Geetha et al.,
2009; Niinomi, 2003). In recent years,
there has been an increasing interest in titanium and titanium alloys among
metallic biomaterials because of their properties of low elastic modulus, corrosion
resistance, wear resistance, high specific strength and good biocompatibility (Niinomi, 2002; Temenoff and Mikos, 2008) which makes them suitable
metals for biomedical applications.