Parents affected by their families as well as

Parents are the first teacher of children, they’re not only have to take
care children’s daily life, but also have to bear the responsibility of their earlier
childhood education and future adaptation of learning. Furthermore, parents involve
the whole process of children’s development. Therefore, the parental
involvement should not be ignored in children’s entire educational

history. In addition, “Parental involvement is
believed to be an important strategy in the advancement of the quality of
education. According to Althoff (2010)
parent involvement refers to the amount of participant a parent has when it
comes to schooling and her child’s life.”

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When children started going to kindergarten, parent’s involvement can
increase the resources used by schools and provide various suggestions and knowledges
to complement each other, Also, parents can understand the need of development
for different age group of children through proactive participating school’s
activities so as to enhance the communication opportunities between parents and
children. Thus, parents can create a balance development for children through
understanding the learning ability of their children. In contrast, parental
involvement can reduce the impact on discontinuing of education after children
returned from school as parents can design some home activities for them to
have continue learning at home.

According to Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System theory proposes that children’s growth and development is being affected by
their families as well as school. School is also one of the closest Microsystems
surrounding children. Parents, schools and children are very closely related
and each holding different role which influence on children’s values ??and
attitudes toward others. For the early childhood education, each system affects
the whole process of children’s education in various degrees. In Microsystem,
family has an immediate relationship with children, so that parental
involvement in parenting style will also affect the process of children’s
education on different levels. For example, if parents often complain and blame,
then this kind of negative atmosphere has affected children’s physical and
psychological development virtually. The Mesosystem theory describe that family
and school cooperation is indispensable, it also reflects the importance of parents’
participation and interaction between parent-school cooperation in the
education of children. According to Epstein(2002)
identified six types of effective family and school involvement, if parents can
participate in children’s school education actively, then this is not only can help
the development of children, but also can improve the parenting skills. First, school
arranges a series of parental education seminars upon different grades of children
and the needs of their parents regularly and invites some experts to share their
childhood education experiences. The purpose is to enhance parents’ knowledge
and skills in parenting and helping parents to grasp their role in the family
in order to establish a good family environment. For example, the “Have a
date with my father” seminar promote the role of positive father, it tries
to change the traditional status of father’s role and encourages fathers to proactively
participate in the process of children’s development as fathers’ involvement have
a significant influence on developing a happy and healthy life for children. Second,
parents should focus on communication with schools so that they can understand children’s
situation or provide opinions through Parents’ Day, School Open Days, student
handbook and other communication channels. For example, when a teacher calls
the parents to know how is the behavior of the children at home, parents should
give positive and proactive response, this can enhance the mutual understanding
and cooperation to help the development of children. Meanwhile, parents can
also understand their children’s need and ability through such kind of
communication. Third, parents participate in volunteer work at children’s school.
For example, parents volunteer to create teaching aids to share the work of
school. By participating in school duties, parents can clearly understand the
school’s philosophy and cooperate with the development of school to achieve the
effectiveness of home-school cooperation. In addition, parents can understand
their children’s school life through volunteer work, this can increase interaction
and communication between parents and children, it can also help the children
to develop self-confidence and sense of accomplishment. Forth, parents involve children’s
learning process. For example, the parent-children reading plan, children go to
the library to borrow books regularly, so that the parents can understand their
interests and develop a continuing study through home reading, this not only can
help children to develop good reading habits, but also can help children to develop
their ability on self-thinking and the interest on exploring extra knowledge. In
addition, Exosystem pointed out that mass media is one of the indirect factors affecting
children’s development. As technology progresses, smart phone has become part
of children’s lives, some parents would rather give the smart phone to children
than communicate with them, however they do not aware the content of the
program whether is suitable for the children or not. Although the content
should be good for children, there still have some pop up advertisement will
escape from guidance instruction that might spread incorrect values which leading
children to learn inappropriate behavior as a result of the interpersonal relationship
problems. For example, some of the television program contains violent and sex,
if parents cannot give guidance to the children at once, then there is chance
for children to learn the behavior because they are not able to judge or
identify if it is good or not. Therefore, parents should actively participate
in school programs which teaching parents on how to reduce the usage of
electronic products of children, so that parents can increase the time on parent-child
games to replace television and smart phone time at home so as to promote the
healthy development of children and parent-child relationship.

Although
the development of children will be affected by different factors, environments,
relationships and layers upon Bronfenbrenner’s
theory,
parental involvement still plays the most important role on influencing children’s growth and education. Families, schools
and children have a direct interaction and relationship.  Parents or
schools should cooperate and respect to each other to enhance the mutual development
on children’s education. Parents can improve parenting skills through parental
involvement so as to promote children’s physical and mental integrity. The perspective
of Bronfenbrenner’s theory describes that a positive correlation between
parents’ participation and school effectiveness showing that more parents
participation in school education has improved school effectiveness. As a
result, parents can build up a balance of life for children and let them grow
up healthy and happily.   

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