Criminal Justice is the main System, which involves variety of agencies and organisations (such as The Police Service, Crown Prosecution Service, the Criminal Courts, the Probation and Prison Services) that are controlled by government departments (Home Office and Ministry of Justice), to be responsible for maintaining the law and order by following the established rules as well as the interest of all residents (Joyce, Peter, 2013). The main purposes of the Criminal Justice System are, to provide Justice for all citizens ‘by convicting and punishing those who break the established laws and rules with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts, in order to protect the innocent’ (CJS Online, 2010). In other words, the aim of the Criminal Justice System is to detect and stop the crime occurring. It helps public to live in safe and protected environment. However, there are some serious problems within the contemporary Criminal Justice System.
Racism, Hate Crime, Police unwarrantedly using force towards Black people on streets as well as the excessive appearance of Black and Asian people in prison and the over-presentation of particular racial group in police stop-and-searches, have recently been major concerns (Spalek, 2008; Webster, 2007). All of these aspects can be observed all around the World. Nowadays, racial discrimination within the Criminal Justice System is an important and very significant contemporary issue, which requires careful consideration and serious attention from all individuals, especially from Criminal Justice System organisations such as police, prisons and probation services from all around the World. Discrimination is unfair and detrimental treatment towards individuals with different group class: for example race, nationality, gender or age (Cambridge Dictionary, 2013). There are two categories of discrimination in the Criminal Justice System, which are defined as Direct Discrimination and Indirect Discrimination. Direct Discrimination is mentioned while a person is treated unpleasantly and less positively, because of their background, race, gender, age or sexual orientation and is unlawful under the Equality Act 2010, meanwhile Indirect Discrimination refers when an individual is ‘treated in the same way as other people, however it has a worse influence on them than on others’.