2. Scale measures participants’ level of stress. The
variables involved in this study were behavior, fatigue, academic performance,
sleep habits and patterns, and physical, emotional and psychological factors.
habits and patterns, and physical, psychological, and emotional facts
were predictive variables.
academic performance and fatigue were
the predicted variables.
purpose of this study was to portray what the causes of lower sleep quality and patterns of sleep in
participants were 420 male and 705 female students ages 17-24. This study was
performed at a university in the Midwest. These students were either entered in
a raffle for gift certificates from $25-$150 value or they could get a class
credit for certain psychology courses. Of these participants, most were
Caucasian at 86%, and the rest were Asian or Pacific Islander at 5%, African
American at 2%, biracial at 2%, American Indian or Alaskan Native at 1%, and
Hispanic at 0.4% (3% did not specify or chose other).
following materials were used: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index which
measures seven factors affecting sleep over the last month on a 0-3 scale, 3
being the worst. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale analyzes eight factors, checking
how tired the participant has felt over the past 6 months, also on a 0-3 scale,
3 being the sleepiest. The Horne-Ostberg Morningness Eveningness Scale where
participants select time preferences for activities between 5:00 a.m. and 12:00
p.m. The Subjective Units of Distress Scale measures participants’ level of
stress. The Profile of Mood States measures how much participants feel
depression, tension, fatigue, confusion, vigor, and anger.
email was sent to the eligible students and a survey was kept online in the
middle of the semester for a period of 4 weeks. After finishing the survey
students could go to a different site to enter the raffle.
result was that college students have chronically restricted sleep as well as
poor sleep quality. Inferior quality sleepers have higher negative mood scores
and more illness. These sleepers also drink more alcohol than others and ingest
more prescription medications to stay awake. The largest cause for poor sleep
quality was reported to be stress.