1.0 and government policies in general. Define technology
1.0 Technology in our life
Technology has been defined from different perspectives. Existing studies on technology have attracted researchers from all around the world including organizational management, political science, economics, sociology, anthropology, marketing and recently management of technology.
The Definition and Concept of Technology:
Past researchers have viewed and defined the term ‘technology’ from many perspectives and this has influenced the research design and results, negotiations around a transfer and government policies in general.
Define technology as the integration of the physical objects or artifacts, the process
of making the objects and the meaning associated with the physical objects. These elements are not distinctive and separable factors but form a ‘seamless web’ that constitutes technology (Woolgar, 1987). In defining the term technology, all the three elements must be understood as being interconnected to each other and a change in one element will affect the other two elements.
Apart from understanding the concept of technology, the classification of technology is also crucial in explaining the various kinds of technologies that embody in the product, production processes and human capital of the firm. Reddy and Zhoa (1990) in their extensive review of technology transfer literature have constructed taxonomies of technology from the previous literature. The early taxonomy of technology was developed by Mansfield (1975) who used “embodied” and “disembodied” technology classification. The classification was later further extended by Madeuf (1984) to include capital embodied, human embodied and disembodied technology. Hall and Johnson (1970) suggest the use of “product-embodied”, “process-embodied” and “person-embodied” technology classification rather than the classification based on:”general”, “system-specific”, “company-specific” technology.
Includes technical information which is common to companies in the same activity. System specific technology corresponds to knowledge and know-how develops for solving particular industrial problems.
Covers the corporate skills and capabilities from general activity and experience of each individual firm, which technology constructed taxonomy by separating product designs, production techniques, and managerial functions. Madeuf (1984) suggests a distinction between “alienated’ technology and “socialized” technology. Alienated technology includes information which is not free such as secret know-how. Conversely, “socialized technology” does not imply any specific transaction.
2.2 History of the Technology
Hominids started using primitive stone tools millions of years ago. The earliest stone tools were little more than a fractured rock, but approximately 75,000 years ago, pressure flaking provided a way to make much finer work.
The discovery and utilization of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological evolution of humankind. The exact date of its discovery is not known; evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1 Ma.
Clothing and shelter
Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic era were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both technologies cannot be dated exactly, but they were a key to humanity’s progress. humans were constructing temporary wood huts. Clothing, adapted from the fur and hides of hunted animals, helped humanity expand into colder regions.
Continuing improvements led to the furnace and bellows and provided, for the first time, the ability to smelt and forge of gold, copper, silver, and lead– native metals found in a relatively pure form in nature. The advantages of copper tools over stone, bone, and wooden tools were quickly apparent to early humans, and native copper was probably used from near the beginning of Neolithic times (about 10 ka). Eventually, the working of metals led to the discovery of alloys such as bronze and brass (about 4000 BCE). The first uses of iron alloys such as steel dates to around 1800 BCE.
Energy and transport
Meanwhile, humans were learning to harness other forms of energy. The earliest known use of wind power is the sailing; the earliest record of a ship under sail is that of a Nile boat dating to the 8th millennium BCE. From prehistoric times, Egyptians probably used the power of the annual flooding of the Nile to irrigate their lands, gradually learning to regulate much of it through purposely built irrigation channels and “catch” basins.
Medieval and modern history (300 CE – present)
Innovations continued through the Middle ages with innovations such as silk, the horse collar, and horseshoes in the first few hundred years after the fall of the Roman Empire. Medieval technology saw the use of simple machines (such as the lever, the screw, and the pulley) being combined to form more complicated tools, such as the wheelbarrow, windmills, and clocks. The advancements in technology in this era allowed a steadier supply of food, followed by the wider availability of consumer goods.
2.3 Types of Technology:
We use technology to accomplish various tasks, so technology comes in different types, below there are some of the different types of technology that we use on a daily basis and on each type of technology an example of that particular technology.
· Communication Technology: means to transmit information or data from one place to another or from one person to another. Communication is used for many purposes; it is used to convey ideas, exchange information, and express emotions. Humans use communication technology tools like phones, computers, emails, fax and text messaging to stay in touch with friends and family , then, businesses use communication technology tools to facilitate the flow of information in a workplace, to serve customers’ needs and requests, to promote new products or services to targeted consumers and so much more.
· Assistive Technology: This is the type of technology which is used by people with disabilities to accomplish specific tasks which seem to be difficult or impossible to perform. The term “Assistive” means helping or providing an extra hand. Assistive technology is being used in schools to help students with Autism to learn better, it is used to help people to move and get their daily tasks done. Due to advancement in technology, we have a variety of assistive technologies which can assist you to accomplish anything which might seem difficult.
Medical Technology: This is the type of technology which is used to extend and improve human life. Medical technology reduces patient’s pain and injury. Developed countries have benefited from the use of medical technology in their healthcare systems.
Information Technology: Information Technology is a set of hardware and software tools used to store information. Information technology tools help in providing the right people with the right information at the right time. Knowledge workers in an organization use information technology to complete various tasks and these can include; transferring of information which facilitates decision making within an organization, improve customer service, and so much more. Nowadays, it is very important to manage information systems to ensure accuracy and efficiency.
Educational Technology: Is the type of technology which aims at improving performance by creating and managing various technological processes and resources. It is an academic discipline which prepares individuals to acquire deeper understanding and knowledge. It helps them learn how to devise solutions to problems through research, design, evaluation, and utilization. Educational technology helps in improving the way we learn, some of the benefits of the educational technology include: It motivates students and it encourages individual learning, it makes the access of educational material easy and it helps students learn new subjects and languages through Gamification.
2.4 Technology improving the educational field:
· Technology Promotes individual learning: Students can use their iPad and internet to make personal research online and educate themselves. When a student is in control of what they learn, they will have no fear of making mistakes and this will encourage them to explore more about a specific subject. Many teachers are allowing students to carry out personal research on specific subjects; the results can be shared with other students or the entire classroom via a smart whiteboard.
· It Promotes Students engagement in classroom: Since educational technologies like digital whiteboards are interactive, teachers can give students a chance to teach their fellow students using this interactive whiteboard. Also, the integration of Gamification technologies keeps students entertained and attentive while in the classroom because games remove that boring atmosphere in the classroom. Students can learn subjects like Math and English through playing games.
· Technology Helps students learn how to write and spell: The use of computers to take notes in the classroom has helped so many students learn how to write well-composed essays. Computers have word applications and built-in dictionaries which will auto-correct grammar mistakes while students are taking notes in the classroom. Also, teachers are encouraging students to create personal blogs so that they can practice and improve their writing and spelling skills.
· Technology Encourages group learning: The use of group sharing technologies like Pizaa.com / SnagIt / helped shy students join discussion groups in the classroom without exposing their identities. Group discussions help students ask questions and learn more about a specific subject. Group discussions tend to create a strong relationship among students in the classroom and they also help shy students learn how to socialize with others in the classroom.
· It prepares students for technical working environments: Students are taught how to use computers and various technological tools which can be of great benefit when they complete school and start applying for jobs. As the world keeps on advancing, all jobs of the future will require applicants to have some technical skills. So, the use of technology in the classroom prepares students for tomorrow’s technical working conditions.
· Technology encourages risk-taking due to the challenges it presents: Technology is challenging to learn and it presents students with puzzles to solve. During this process of solving academic puzzles, student’s brains become sharp and they tend to get interested in taking more risks. Life is about taking risks, so if our students learn how to take risks while in the classroom, then it will be easier for them to take more calculated risks after school.
· Technology provides assistance to students with disabilities: Assistive educational technology like iPads, Robots, Games can help students with diseases like Autism learn how to speak and write. Also, deaf, students can easily communicate using mobile text messaging in the classroom and this can increase their engagement in the classroom.
· Technology bridges the gap between teachers and students: Teachers and students are using advanced educational technologies to connect more than before. New mobile text messaging technologies.
· Technology simplifies teachers work: Teachers have found creative ways of making their work easier by using technology in the classroom. For example, a teacher does not need to go through the hassle of marking thousands of exam/test papers, now we have a new iPad application ”Markup” which turns all students’ exams into electrical papers and teachers can mark these exam papers with an iPad. This creates a paperless classroom because most students can afford computers, so exams are assigned to students electronically.
In conclusion, the meaning of technology is the knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment. And technology is developing so fast and people from different fields of the world are making many additions to it. It is impossible to ignore the impact of technology on our daily lives, Technology has made our life easier and more comfortable.
2.0 Lack of using Technology
In the first chapter we talked about Technology in our life and some theory parts about Technology, this chapter will take about some issues that happened because of lack of using Technology in college of computer in girls’ college, these issues were decided based on survey, so we suggested some solutions to the current issues and additional Technology to be added, this chapter will include the following: Technologies used in the college, issues that have an effect on students’ learning process, necessary solutions, helpful solutions and extra solutions.
3.2 Technologies used in the college
In the University of Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal college of computer science and information system, there are so many different technologies that helped the student that we would like to talk about. Technologies can be electronic technologies like for example, one of the most important electronic technology is the Student information system, with it students can access and modify their information as well as courses registrations. Another important electronic technology is the blackboard, where students can find their lectures there and they can take their online quizzes with it. Another electronic technology is the electronic library, where students can find some online books theirs. However, there are also some physical technologies such as projectors, computer labs and snacks vending machines that helped students in the college.
3.3 Issues that have an effect on students’ learning process
There are a lot of technology issues in the girls computer science and information system college that have effect on students learning process one of the issues is the far distance between the building where we renewal our ID cards and our building ,the second issue that we will discuss that there is no book store where we can buy pens and notebook in case we forget our at home, Also there is no comminution platform so that student can communicate with each other students and more issues that we divided it into three categories the first category is necessary solution, the second category is helpful solution and the third category is extra solution .we will discuss the three categories in depth in the next paragraph.
3.4 Necessary solutions
Necessary solutions are things that make it hard for the students if it wasn’t there, also these solutions are the ones that got the higher percentage based on students’ opinions after doing the survey, which means that it is the solutions that they need the most. as for these solutions, we have three, which is creating systems to link buildings together, computer station (or computer room) and the last one is having a map. We will talk about it in more depth. First, creating systems to link buildings, as in our college some academic services need to be done in some specific buildings at specific times as well, such as getting a locker or getting an ID (which is now located in building 30) and according to the survey that we have made the majority of the students agreed that they have an issue with the distance and they may not get their things done since it’s too far away, so the suggested solution for this issue is to make a system that links the college of computer building with other buildings by making auto reservation, requests and so on, to give an example how this would work, the system should let the user enter the needed information to make an auto reservation of the locker in the other building, same goes with other academic services. Secondly, as we are in a college of computer, we work with different types of operating systems and we have various projects include coding, so we need to use the computer regularly, therefore, the suggested solution here is to make a computer station or computer room that includes computers, printers, and tables for working together, or individually. this can help the students who have free time or a long break time to work on their projects or practice on courses. Thirdly, one of the necessary solutions is having a map of our campus. this map can include options such as food and drink, study spaces, car parks, cash machines, and so on. You can simply click on the options you want and it will appear right in front of you on the map. This way you can simply know the directions of the place you want to go to easily and quickly.
3.5 Helpful solutions
The using of technology in college is to help students to save time and improve their college experience one of the helpful solutions is to have a platform where the student can communicate with each other and share helpful information to other students. A university in Canada, Montreal Has created a social media platform called “UniYu”, UniYu would help students from different level to communicate with each other, to see other students notes, share their thought about a specific course and write about their first-year experience to help the freshman students. The second helpful solution is to have a vending machine that contains bookstore supplies and another vending machine that contains medicine can help students to get things faster and easier, like if a student gets sick and needs a painkiller she can get it faster form the machine and due to not having a nurse officer in the building a vending machine containing important medicine can help. Also having a bookstore vending machine can help students to reach the books, pens, and calculator they need easily. In addition to the previous two, we have mentioned another helpful solution to improve technology in our college is to provide public charging stations. Public charging stations would make it easier for students to charge/recharge their devices. Especially considering that we are computer science students we use our devices more than other students in different majors. Just as mentioned previously, we would use our devices (smartphones, tablets, laptops) to access the college’s blackboard, website, and online library.
Seeing as we have witnessed before in public events and gatherings there were a provided charging stations in order to serve the visitors, also charging stations can be an income source for the college, by making the students pay for charging their devices.
3.6 Extra solutions
There are some extra solutions which can be more entertaining than needed, 3D printing is one of them which is also known as additive manufacturing, a process used to create a three-dimensional object using a computer control to create an object, with material being added together such as the one used in Fablab Dhahran which is a lab located at KFUPM university that helps the students to design or model. Considering we are in a computer science college a 3d printer would help the students or the instructor to model the inner parts of the computer that would further knowledgeable and understandable instead of buying expensive inner parts. Secondly, there is an informative device that can be inserted into the college to give directions or answering most asked questions.
To sum up technology is an important thing in our life, having it improves educational field and the lack of it affects the quality of life. In our university, there is two types of used technologies that helped students in our college, electronic technologies such as blackboard and physical technologies such as projects. Also, there is a lack of technology in our college that caused issues to students or couldn’t make things easier. some of the issues are distance between the building which can be solved by making a system that links the college of computer building with other buildings by making an auto reservation, requests and so on. another difficulty is getting some important stuff as painkillers and books faster, and a solution to that is having vending machine that contains them. however, we can have some extra solutions that are not necessarily needed but it can benefit the college, as having 3d printers. after observing the questionnaire that was given to students in our college, 86.7% of them said that there is a lack of technology in the college. finally, the main goal for this report is to improve the college’s technology to make it better in it.